Transition describes the movement from the old and familiar to the new. Our lives are full of moments of transition; entry into tertiary study is just one of them. Recalling our own transition into teaching at tertiary level is useful in understanding the challenges and adventure of starting in a new place, learning new rules, doing new things with new people. Transition, for the purposes of this series of papers, describes the move for our learners into tertiary study. Unitec has chosen the following framework to describe transition and to raise questions about how we make the move to tertiary study less challenging for our learners.
From – where are students coming from? What are their experiences? What do they bring to the classroom?
‘From’ recognises the diversity of student experience and background. Diversity, including socio-economic, ethnicity, age, gender and language, has become increasingly significant, as tertiary education has moved away from an elite model. ‘From’ acknowledges that first year experiences are not homogenous.
The diversity of students is not simply demographic. At a deeper and more important level are issues of ontology and epistemology – the beliefs students have about themselves, their identities and their beliefs about knowledge, teaching and learning. Green’s (2007) review of the literature around student and teacher expectations and Gourlay’s (2009) paper on threshold practices and academic literacies both make the point that transition into the new environment is fraught and difficult in no small part because it is so different to where the students are coming from. This is more fully explored in defining the ‘of’, in the third part of the framework.
With – creating a sense of belonging, orientating learners to place, centres and people, both staff and peers.
Geography and familiarity with the campus are important elements of orientation, however more important is orientation to people on campus – peers, teachers and support staff. Orientation week and activities aim to provide these connections but the ‘with’ is academic as well as geographic and social. The ‘with’ is about a sense of belonging both to the institution and to the chosen discipline.
In summarizing the research on the impact of student support services on student outcomes Rivers notes that student outcomes are likely to be enhanced if there are:
Opportunities for students to establish social networks
Teachers are approachable and available for academic discussion
Orientation and induction programmes are provided to facilitate both social and academic integration
A comprehensive range of institutional services and facilities is available. (Rivers, 2005, p.2)
‘Of’ – understanding the ‘rules of the game’; developing an identity in the academic culture, both as a student in the institution and as a member of the discipline.
Orientation to the discipline is central to transition and is not a simple matter. It not only involves coming to terms with new content but also a new identity. ‘Of’ covers entry into a community with distinctive knowledge, practices and ways of enquiry which means engaging with threshold concepts, liminality and new literacies and epistemologies. The ways of enquiry deal with the ways in which knowledge is constructed, presented, negotiated and debated in a discipline. We need to recognize the situated nature of learning and the ambivalence surrounding literacies and the reality of student identity in writing. Tinto (2009) suggests that we don’t focus on how to retain students but ensure they acquire the disposition and skills to become effective learners at university, in our terms that they are ‘of’ the university and the discipline.
A misconception of the ‘of-ness’ which needs to be avoided is that it is simply about supporting students to acquire specific academic skills. Lecturers must be aware that they are not simply engaging students with facts but also with a ‘hidden curriculum’ which lies below the content surface. This curriculum includes the enquiry nature of tertiary study, the way in which facts are constructed, debated and presented, the centrality of literacies (including digital and information literacies).
‘To’ – where students are headed
The ‘to’ applies to various horizons, as much to the micro (course and level – where does this fit and what happens in my other course, my next semester/year?) as to macro (what happens when I graduate?). The graduate profile is one answer to ‘to type questions’ as are work readiness and job opportunities. The ‘to’ is aspirational and may be the reason students are entering tertiary study as it provides the transition to move ‘from’ where they are, ‘to’ where they want to be.